New Reserve Safeguards Vital Landscape in Bolivia

This week, Rainforest Trust and partner Wildlife Conservation Society-Bolivia (WCS-Bolivia) established the Rhukanrhuka Municipal Reserve. The 2,123,749-acre reserve in the Beni region protects grasslands found in the transition area between the Sub-Andean and Llanos de Mojos Ecosystems. The Beni grasslands, an area twice the size of Portugal, is South America’s third largest savanna complex and one of Bolivia’s most vital ecoregions. 

Rainforest Trust South America Conservation Officer Rossana Merizalde with the WSC-Bolivia team. Photo by WCS-Bolivia.

This expansive tropical savanna and the pristine forests found to the north contain multiple rivers that follow the eastern slope of the Andes Mountains. A combination of rain during the wet season and snowmelt from the Andes causes the rivers to flood almost half of the land each season. This flooding allows an extensive variety of wildlife to call this region home. 

The new reserve will help safeguard important populations of emblematic and threatened mammal species, including Jaguars and Pumas. Other resident mammals include Maned Wolves and both Collared and White-lipped Peccaries. The area is home to two endemic Titi monkeys, as well as Black-faced Black Spider Monkeys, two species of Howler Monkeys and Tufted Capuchins. 

In the northern section, the reserve is part of the Rogaguado and Ginebra Lakes Important Bird Area (IBA). This wetland savanna habitat is home to a variety of wading birds such as the Cattle Egret, Maguari Stork, Jabiru, Wood Stork and Whistling Heron. The flooded areas attract birds including Black-collared Hawks, Sunbitterns, Sungrebes and Wattled Jacanas. 

“The designation of this reserve will not only expand connectivity for wild species in a critical region of Bolivia, but will cement their long-term protection,” said Angela Yang, Rainforest Trust Chief Conservation Officer. “The new protected area is now almost twice as large as the originally proposed reserve due to the great collaborative work of our partner and stakeholders, especially the communities and municipal government.”   

The Rhukanrhuka Municipal Reserve is a key part of a network of protected areas and indigenous lands. This network stretches over 34 million acres, from the snow-capped Andean peaks of Apolobamba near Peru to the Beni aluvial plains. Three indigenous titled lands, the Pilon Lajas Biosphere Reserve and the Santa Rosa de Yacuma Municipal Protected Area all border the reserve. 

A pair of Titi monkeys in the new reserve. Photo by WCS-Bolivia.

The protected area will prevent further habitat loss from agricultural expansion. The reserve will also increase the landscape’s resilience to anthropogenic threats. Creating this reserve is an opportunity for local authorities to improve natural resource governance. Having a protected area allows the municipal government to increase vigilance over illegal settlements, timber extraction, fishing and hunting. 

“We applaud the Municipal Government of Reyes, its communities and private ranchers for taking this huge step towards reconciling local livelihoods, sustainable development and cultural values; with the need to protect this vast wilderness and key species” said Dr. Lilian Painter, Country Director for WCS’s Bolivia Program.

WCS-Bolivia will provide expertise in protected area management, including the strategic vision and objectives, a financial strategy and participation mechanisms. They will support the Reyes municipal government in developing management programs focused on endangered species conservation, monitoring, control and vigilance, local participation, outreach and ecotourism. 

Local people and the rancher’s association will support the initial identification of vulnerable areas and establish a protected area management committee comprised of regional stakeholder representatives. The management plan will take into account ecotourism opportunities, work to reduce the risk to key habitats and preserve environmental functions essential to local communities. 

“Rainforest Trust is incredibly pleased to be partnering with WCS-Bolivia, the Municipal Government and the local communities in the protection of this extraordinarily important and richly biodiverse habitat,” said Mark Gruin, Acting CEO of Rainforest Trust  “For us, partnerships like this are fundamental to the establishment of effective, sustainable protected areas.”

With the designation of the Rhukanrhuka Municipal Reserve, Rainforest Trust has now protected over 22 million acres of rainforest across the globe.


Header image: The Near Threatened Jaguar. Photo by Jeffrey Zack.

New Reserve Protects Bonobos in Congo Rainforest

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is home to the Congo Basin, the second largest tropical rainforest in the world. Despite having some of the highest biodiversity levels on Earth, the Congo Basin is one of the world’s least protected and most vulnerable forests.

The DRC also suffers from widespread poverty — a result of decades of war and infrastructure neglect. The country’s interior communities have had to fend for themselves, and many residents make a living from traditional fishing or small-scale agriculture. Forest resources might supplement a family’s few chickens or ducks. But these options don’t always offer a living income.

This combination of poverty, isolation and a lack of infrastructure is a challenge to wildlife conservation in the DRC. But new laws offer communities the right to partner with conservation groups to manage their own forests. Conservationists and communities can now work together to save forests and expand community self-governance.

A community in the region. Photo courtesy of ABC.

With this in mind, Rainforest Trust and local partner Amis des Bonobos du Congo (ABC), also widely known as Lola ya Bonobo in the U.S., set out to create the Ekolo ya Bonobo Community Reserve in the Équateur Province. And last month, the governor of the province signed a declaration to designate the site as a protected area. Ekolo ya Bonobo, covering 117,412 acres of mostly swamp forest, is home to wild Bonobos.

The Bonobo, the closest living relative of the Chimpanzee, is one of the Congo’s most iconic and threatened species. The species is endemic to the DRC’s rainforests and the International Union for Conservation of Nature lists them as “Endangered.”

Ekolo ya Bonobo is home to a diversity of unique flora and fauna. Besides Bonobos, the forest contains Giant Ground Pangolins, Leopards, Grey Parrots and three of the DRC’s four crocodile species. Bushmeat hunting is a significant threat to wildlife like crocodiles, monkeys and antelopes. While Bonobos suffer from habitat loss and poaching throughout the DRC, they have not been the direct targets of poaching in this area. This stems from both local taboos and increased awareness led by ABC’s community engagement programs.

An Endangered Bonobo. Photo courtesy of ABC.

The communities of Ilonga-Pôo, Baenga and Lisafa are the customary owners of the forest, though most of the protected area is remote and uninhabited. The Lopori and Matoku Rivers separate the villages and the town of Basankusu from this forest. Though these towns are closest to the forest, most hunters come from outside the region. But community leaders have limited influence to enforce protection commitments.

The project began by confirming the community’s interest in conserving this land. Much of this initial success was due to ABC’s long history of conservation and outreach in the area. Over the past decade, the communities and Bonobo conservationists have worked together to increase education and health resources. This community involvement continues in the new protected area, where they will manage the reserve alongside ABC. Eventually, they hope to recognize the area with the national Environment Ministry, who will then also help manage the reserve.

Educational programming for Bonobo conservation. Photo courtesy of ABC.

The reserve will train anti-poaching patrols with the legal right to prosecute hunters. It will also monitor wildlife over time and investigate biodiversity hotspots. The results of species surveys will inform complementary conservation education efforts.

This work is an important step forward for great ape conservation. But only significant and sustainable improvements in the communities’ economy will ensure long-term biodiversity protection. Hence, the project will continue to carry out community-led socioeconomic work that will guide effective and sustainable development efforts.

A view from along the Lopori River. Photo courtesy of ABC.

“The rainforests of the Congo Basin deserve the world’s conservation attention,” said Paul Salaman, President of Rainforest Trust. “But the communities of this area deserve our support as well. I’m pleased Rainforest Trust and ABC found success on this community-driven project to protect one of the world’s great ecosystems.”

This project was made possible through gifts to the Rainforest Trust Conservation Action Fund and the SAVES Challenge. Special thanks to Harvey and Heidi Bookman for their leadership support.

Header photo courtesy of ABC.

Ecuadorean Reserve Expanded for Increased Species Movement

Rainforest Trust and partner Fundación Jocotoco have once again expanded the Narupa Reserve. This month, 159 acres were purchased in the Napo bioregion of northeast Ecuador, 75% of which are primary, pristine forest habitat. Established in 2006 to save a large block of eastern Andean foothill forest, the reserve also consists of old growth and young secondary forest and abandoned pasture lands which will, in time, regrow into woodland.

The Endangered Black-and-chestnut Eagle. Photo courtesy of Roger Ahlman.

Landscape restoration is critical in the Napo region. The forests here are suffering from illegal logging and conversion to agricultural land. But reserve expansion provides vital habitat for endemic bird species like the Endangered Black-and-chestnut Eagle and vulnerable migrants like the Cerulean Warbler. Birders have recorded over 1,000 bird species in the Napo region, exemplifying the importance of this humid montane forest. This month’s purchase also includes wetland habitat for at least four Endangered amphibian species, including the Puyo Giant Glass Frog.

This expansion is part of a larger conservation goal to connect the Narupa Reserve with the Sumaco Napo-Galeras National Park to the north and the Antisana Ecological Reserve to the west, two larger protected areas. This strategic ecological corridor will benefit threatened Andean species and allow birds and mammals to move between large expanses of rainforest freely. Camera trap surveys have confirmed the presence of Pumas, Ocelots and Brazilian Tapirs in Narupa.

“Facilitating animal movement in this increasingly fragmented landscape is of the utmost importance,” said Rainforest Trust CEO Paul Salaman. “Habitat encroachment is rampant, with extractive industries bringing more roads and more people to the rainforest. But species studies have already shown us that the Narupa Reserve is effective in protecting wildlife long term. And the project has the continued support of the Ecuadorean people living nearby. They embrace the reserve, which is essential for its long-term success.”


This purchase was made possible by the SAVES Challenge and the Rainforest Trust Conservation Action Fund. Special gratitude goes to the March Conservation Fund and Artenschutzstiftung Zoo for their leadership gifts.
Header image: Habitat in the Narupa Reserve. Photo by Fundación Jocotoco.


Rainforest Trust Provides Institutional Support for Partner Fundación Jocotoco

Rainforest Trust has provided nearly $225,000 to Ecuador’s Fundación de Conservación Jocotoco for their core institutional costs and protected area management. Our longest running partner, Jocotoco was founded to protect birds and the biodiversity on which they rely through the purchase of land and creation of nature reserves. The reserve staff at the majority of Jocotoco’s 13 reserves will be supported by Rainforest Trust.

Protecting and enhancing reserves requires the commitment of Rainforest Trust Guardians, Conservation Fellows and partner staff working in the field. In providing funds for institutional operations, Jocotoco’s reserves are more likely to thrive in perpetuity.

The sustainable support we awarded our partner this spring will fund over 30 local jobs, because Rainforest Trust is committed to engaging communities in conservation efforts. We recognize this is the only way ecological and institutional sustainability can be achieved.

“We are very grateful for the strong and long-term support of Rainforest Trust,” said Martin Schaefer, CEO of Fundación Jocotoco. “Without this contribution we would not have been able to protect Ecuador’s most threatened fauna and flora.”

Most recently, Rainforest Trust supported Jocotoco in the establishment of the Jocotoco Reserve on Galápagos. Success is already being reported in the new protected area, where Endangered Galápagos Petrel chicks have been documented. In addition to the nearly $225,000 in operational support to be used in the Galápagos and in Jocotoco reserves across Ecuador.

“We have worked with Jocotoco for over 20 years and know just how effective their conservation efforts in Ecuador are,” said Rainforest Trust CEO Paul Salaman. “This contribution will strengthen protection and long term sustainability of some of the most important sites for wildlife in Latin America.” 

A pair of Coppery-chested Jacamar in Jocotoco’s Narupa Reserve. Photo by Francisco Sornoza.


Header image: The Endangered Jocotoco Antpitta, the foundation’s emblematic bird. Photo by Patty McGann.



Critically Endangered Galápagos Petrel Chicks Spotted in Rainforest Trust Reserve

Rainforest Trust is thrilled to report not one, but two Critically Endangered birds species are thriving in their reserves this spring.

A Jocotoco staff member with a Petrel Chick. Photo by Fundación Jocotoco.

Earlier this month, a juvenile Blue-eyed Ground Dove was photographed during a rare sighting in Brazil. And this week, Rainforest Trust partner Fundación Jocotoco shared news that they located a group of Galápagos Petrel nests in the Jocotoco Reserve on Galápagos. This discovery is particularly exciting because there were no previously known colonies of petrels in the protected area. Colonies of the large, long-winged bird are rare and threatened, so evidence of population growth is an optimistic sign for the future of the species.

Petrels tend to nest in burrows or natural cavities on sloped hillsides which make them particularly vulnerable to introduced predators like cats, rats and pigs. The population had decreased significantly by the 1980s, but recent conservation efforts toward protecting nests from predators have preserved and increased the birds’ numbers. With the global population at an estimated 10,000 to 20,000, efforts to maintain the species look promising.

Now that a new colony of Galápagos Petrels have nested in the project site, it will be easier for Jocotoco to monitor the species and ensure long-term survival. The partner plans to hire two park guards and a Geographic Information Systems professional to create a map of the nests in the reserve to track growth.

The 250-acre reserve, established earlier this year by Rainforest Trust and Jocotoco, protects rainforest in the highlands of San Cristóbal Island, Galápagos. The safeguarding of this area was particularly significant to our organization. Long before the official designation, our partners spent time studying the unique resident species and identifying priority conservation areas on the island.

Rainforest Trust is thrilled to contribute to the rich scientific history of San Cristóbal — which famously served as the inspiration for Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection — by providing a safe haven for its unique biodiversity. Hopefully, more threatened species will find protection in the reserve and expand their populations.

Header image: Researcher exploring the upper-western coast of the reserve. Photo by Fundación Jocotoco.

Preserve Expanded for Critically Endangered Tortoises

The Geometric Tortoise, native to South Africa’s Western Cape, is one of the world’s most striking tortoise species. Some people have even called it the “Fabergé egg” of tortoises. It’s also one of the world’s most endangered reptiles. Fewer than 1,000 individual tortoises remain in the wild.

Much of this decline has come from habitat loss. Expanding agriculture and urban areas have decimated almost 95% of the species habitat. Cape Town — one of the largest metropolitan areas in South Africa — is also in the Western Cape. That puts the ecosystem under immense pressure from Cape Town’s growth. In addition, vineyards and ranches cover much of the land near the preserve. Without conservation, this land would likely go towards the wine and cattle industries.

But Rainforest Trust and its local partner South Africa Tortoise Conservation Trust created the Geometric Tortoise Preserve to safeguard the species. And this month, the protected area grew by 49 acres through a land purchase.

The Geometric Tortoise Preserve. Photo courtesy of the Turtle Conservancy.

The preserve is home to the largest remaining Geometric Tortoise population on Earth. Scientists estimate the 15-25% of the entire species lives in this one protected area. But the preserve is also valuable for protecting parts of the greater Fynbos ecosystem. The Fynbos is home to many rare and threatened plant species and other wildlife. Over 9,000 plant species live in the Fynbos — and more than two-thirds of them live nowhere else on Earth. But less than half of the original Fynbos ecosystem remains intact.

The new land is being added to the Geometric Tortoise Preserve’s conservation management plan. The preserve manages the land to prevent wildfires and restore degraded habitat. Researchers are also monitoring tortoise populations to maintain an accurate picture of the species’s status.

“Expanding this reserve is vital to the future of the ornate Geometric Tortoise and the unique Fynbos ecosystem,” said Dr. Paul Salaman, CEO of Rainforest Trust. “With careful monitoring and management, I’m confident we’re on a path to protecting the tortoise and other endemic species of the Western Cape from extinction.”

This reserve was made possible through the support of the Rainforest Trust Conservation Action Fund, the SAVES Challenge and Rainforest Trust’s partners at The Turtle Conservancy.

A Geometric Tortoise found in the preserve. Photo courtesy of the Turtle Conservancy.

Header photo courtesy of the Turtle Conservancy.

Ghana Lost Over Half of Its Rainforest in 2018, Rainforest Trust Refuge Expansion Combats Further Deforestation

According to a new report on the status of the world’s primary forests, Ghana’s rainforest is rapidly disappearing. In 2018 alone, the country saw an alarming 60% decrease in primary rainforest. This was the highest percentage of rainforest loss of any tropical country.

Although the leading threat is unclear, numerous factors contribute to environmental damage in Ghana. Illegal small scale mining causes a massive amount of deforestation. Land clearing for timber exportation is also rampant and hunting puts pressure on native species of various habitats in Ghana’s once-expansive rainforest.

Togo-Volta Highlands. Photo by Mary Brown.

The Ghanaian rainforest has become a conservation priority because of the tremendous habitat loss that threatens its unique biodiversity. In August 2018, Rainforest Trust worked with local partner Herp Conservation Ghana and nearby local communities to designate the Onepone Endangered Species Refuge in the Togo-Volta Hills. The new protected area received its title from the local people’s traditional name. Local communities continue to work with the partner to ensure this project’s long-term vitality. The 847 acres safeguarded the habitat of many threatened species, including the Critically Endangered Hooded Vulture and Vulnerable Black-bellied and White-bellied Pangolins. The Critically Endangered Togo Slippery Frog and the Endangered Ukami Reed Frog, as well as a variety of endemic plants, butterflies and amphibians call these lush highlands home. 

The Critically Endangered Togo Slippery Frog. Photo by Michael Akrasi.

But forested areas surrounding the refuge continue to degenerate from human influence. Expanding the Onepone Reserve is necessary for the ecosystem to continue to survive. Rainforest Trust and Herp Conservation Ghana seek $339,596 to safeguard 1,319 additional acres to protect some of the last remaining intact forests in the Togo-Volta highlands. This new protection will further safeguard the reserve’s species and allow them to thrive in perpetuity. Overall, the expanded reserve will protect at least 222 species of plants, 152 birds, 24 mammals, 20 amphibians and 76 butterflies.

Local communities will determine this designation’s success. With the site officially protected, the partner will enable the local population to manage wildlife and reduce hunting. Efforts to restore damaged habitats will provide benefits to the species that reside in this forest, as well as the communities that surround it.

The Vulnerable White Bellied Pangolin. Photo by Helene Hoffman.

Header image: Rainforest in the Onepone Endangered Species Refuge. Photo by Michael Akrasi.

Blue-eyed Ground-dove Chick Spotted in Rainforest Trust Reserve

In January 2018, Rainforest Trust worked closely with local partner Sociedade para a Conservação das Aves do Brasil (SAVE Brasil) to protect the Critically Endangered Blue-eyed Ground-dove through designating the 1,466-acre Blue-eyed Ground-dove Reserve in southeastern Brazil. The following July, the Minas Gerias state government designated the Botumirim State Park nearby. The two protected areas have allowed researchers to study the biology of this unique bird and find ways to rehabilitate the species as a whole.

The Critically Endangered Blue-eyed Ground-dove chick (foreground). Photo by SAVE Brasil.

Their hard work is proving to be fruitful, as a new group of doves were recently spotted in the reserve. And last week, a SAVE Brasil staff member captured one of the only existing photographs of a juvenile Blue-eyed Ground-Dove. Researchers estimate that it is two weeks old and will be fledging soon. Evidence of quick population growth is a great ornithological feat, considering the species was thought to be extinct in the wild until they were rediscovered in 2015. The protection provided by the state park and Rainforest Trust reserve — paired with continuing efforts of SAVE Brasil to monitor the species — is essential to the survival of this rare and beautiful bird.

“This sighting inspires a great deal of confidence in the overall future of the Blue-eyed Ground-dove” said Rainforest Trust CEO Paul Salaman. “We are confident that the knowledgeable, dedicated staff of SAVE Brasil will be able to nurture the population to a size that ensures the long-term survival of the species.” 

Header image: Two Blue-eyed Ground-doves. Photo by Rafael Bessa.

UN Reports Monumental Rate of Global Biodiversity and Rainforest Loss

This week, the UN released its first comprehensive report on global biodiversity. The findings are alarming, stating that species loss is accelerating at a rate unprecedented in human history — potentially hundreds of times faster than in the past. The 39-page report summarizes drivers of biodiversity loss such as habitat fragmentation, deforestation and pollution. But the rapid, negative effects of climate change are the most dire threat.

The report also notes that not all ecosystems are under the same level of pressure. Some, like rainforests, harbor great biodiversity and an abundance of life. Hence, rainforest deforestation results in immense wildlife loss, more so than some other, less diverse ecosystems. In addition, primary rainforests are the most critical ecosystem for carbon storage — keeping carbon out of the atmosphere — which mitigates the effects of climate change. If rainforest degradation continues at this speed, it will likely result in the extinction of a great number of species. Some of these species will go extinct within mere decades.

Scientists are calling for immediate action. “For a long time, people just thought of biodiversity as saving nature for its own sake,” said Robert Watson, chair of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, the consortium of scientists that lead the study. “But this report makes clear the links between biodiversity and nature and things like food security and clean water in both rich and poor countries.”

The UN Sustainable Development Goals promote merging both ecological and socioeconomic sustainability, a strategy that Rainforest Trust embraces. Our work preserves the world’s most threatened rainforests and species through collaboration with local partners. We recognize that protecting habitat in perpetuity requires the investment of communities whose livelihoods depends on the rainforest. To date, Rainforest Trust has protected over 20 million acres through these local partnerships.

Learn how you can contribute to global biodiversity protection with Rainforest Trust here.


Header image: Deforestation is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss. Photo by Rainforest Trust.

Christie’s Will Offer Jonas Wood’s Japanese Garden 3 (2019) Benefitting Rainforest Conservation

New York — On May 15, Christie’s New York Post-War and Contemporary evening sale will commence with the auction of Jonas Wood’s Japanese Garden 3, a large-scale painting to benefit Global Wildlife Conservation (GWC). The proceeds will fund a 600,000-acre reserve of South American rainforest that will aid the area’s biodiversity including protecting several native endangered species and combating climate change. The 2019 work, a large-scale landscape painting measuring 88 x 98 inches, was donated by the artist in a collaboration that was initiated by Art to Acres, a nonprofit foundation dedicated to raising funds for land conservation through art sales. Additionally, GWC and Rainforest Trust have offered a generous 400% match of the hammer price of Japanese Garden 3 to go towards funding the reserve. These organizations will jointly oversee the conservation project, which encompasses an area of land twice the size of Los Angeles.

Jonas Wood, Japanese Garden 3, oil and acrylic on canvas, 2019, Estimate: $500,000 – 700,000.


Christie’s has developed an on-going partnership with Art to Acres, which began in September 2018 with the sale of several lots in its Post-War to Present auction that raised over $1.8 million for land conservation. The initiative creates new national reserves and sees the sale of an artwork measuring a few feet in size leading to the conservation of hundreds of acres of land. Founded by artist and conservationist Haley Mellin, Art to Acres raised $10 million in 2018 for wildlands conservation through the combined sale of artwork and support of matching funds.

Vivian Brodie, Specialist, Post-War and Contemporary Art, said: This partnership represents a powerful new initiative to transform works of art into physical acres of protected tropical forest. The relationship between art and conservation does not get much more direct and tangible than this.

Paul Salaman, CEO, Rainforest Trust, remarked: “Rainforests are the Earth’s life-support system. Without them, carbon ravages the atmosphere, species go extinct and vulnerable people suffer.”

Haley Mellin, Founder, Art to Acres, explained: “Both art and conservation are based in legacy. This painting will conserve over 600,000 acres of land into a national park. Art to Acres connects artists, philanthropists, and collectors with a permanent impact on wildlands.”

Brian Sheth, Chair of the Board, Global Wildlife Conservation, commented: “The relationship between nature and art has existed in ways large and small since our shared journey on this planet began. The proceeds and matching funds from the sale will bolster our important work to conserve the crown jewels of tropical forests around the world — the very lifeblood of our planet.”

Jonas Wood is the subject of his first major museum retrospective organized by the Dallas Museum of Art. Japanese Garden 3 is a striking example of the artist’s ability to infuse a seemingly simple subject with visual intrigue and dynamic presence. The third painting in a series started in 2017, Japanese Garden 3 expands on Wood’s interest exploring nature and architectural exteriors. True to form, the artist has chosen only the most orderly and carefully-curated of outdoor locales by taking the immaculately tended traditional gardens of Japan as his subject. Inundated with masses of green and blue, Japanese Garden 3 exists in several overlapping layers that bring together a patchwork of flattened forms and intricate brushwork.

About Christie’s

Christie’s, the world’s leading art business, had global auction, private and digital sales in 2018 that totalled £5.3 billion / $7 billion. Christie’s is a name and place that speaks of extraordinary art, unparalleled service and international expertise. Christie’s offers around 350 auctions annually in over 80 categories, including all areas of fine and decorative arts, jewellery, photographs, collectibles, wine, and more. Prices range from $200 to over $100 million. Christie’s also has a long and successful history conducting private sales for its clients in all categories, with emphasis on Post-War & Contemporary, Impressionist & Modern, Old Masters and Jewellery.

Alongside regular sales online, Christie’s has a global presence in 46 countries, with 10 salerooms around the world including in London, New York, Paris, Geneva, Milan, Amsterdam, Dubai, Zürich, Hong Kong, and Shanghai.

*Please note when quoting estimates above that other fees will apply in addition to the hammer price – see Section D of the Conditions of Sale at the back of the sale catalogue.

*Estimates do not include buyer’s premium. Sales totals are hammer price plus buyer’s premium and are reported net of applicable fees.