Due to its unique geological formations and varied soils, the Sierra del Divisor holds an impressive number of rare and endemic species. Although the area has yet to be thoroughly studied, a rapid biological inventory conducted in 2005 found several dozen species that are potentially new to science. Based upon these results, researchers expect that future surveys will lead to the discovery of even more species. Historically inaccessible, the Sierra del Divisor remains a refuge for plant and animal species threatened elsewhere in the Amazon.
• Of the 38 medium and large mammal species confirmed to live in the Sierra del Divisor, 20 are threatened. Mammals found include jaguars, pumas, Giant armadillos, and South American tapirs.
• The area hosts a remarkably high number of primate species. Of the 33 species found in the Amazon Basin, 16 are found in the Sierra del Divisor – more than any other protected area in Peru, including Manú National Park.
• Habitat for two of these threatened primates, the Red uakari monkey and Goeldi’s monkey, has yet to receive protection in Peru.
• A total of 3,500 plant species are thought to exist in the area, so far over 1,000 have been identified. Ten of these – including four trees – are new to science. Commercially valuable tree species, such as mahogany, logged at unsustainable levels in most of the Amazon, are found in comparative abundance.
• Scientists believe as many as 300 fish species inhabit the streams and rivers of the Sierra del Divisor Mountains. So far, 109 species have been found in the area, including 14 species new to science or previously unrecorded in Peru.
• Of 365 confirmed bird species, several are endemic to the region’s white-sand forests, including the Rufous Potoo and Fiery Topaz. The Acre Antshrike, previously known to inhabit a single ridge in Brazil, is only found in the Sierra de Divisor. As many as 570 bird species may frequent the area.
• 109 species of amphibians and reptiles have been found in the Sierra del Divisor, including several species new to science and previously unidentified in Peru.